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A security hacker is someone who explores methods for breaching defenses and exploiting weaknesses in a computer system or network .  Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering,  challenge, recreation,  or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the "computer underground". Longstanding controversy surrounds the meaning of the term "hacker ". In this controversy, computer programmers reclaim the term hacker , arguing that it refers simply to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks  and that cracker is the more appropriate term for those who break into computers, whether computer criminals (black hats) or computer security experts (white hats).  A 2014 article noted that "... the black-hat meaning still prevails among the general public". HistoryFurther information: Timeline of computer security hacker historyBruce Sterling , author of The Hacker CrackdownIn computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more often used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures. That is, the media portrays the 'hacker' as a villain. Nevertheless, parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers, who utilize hacking in a helpful way. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field.  They operate under a code, which acknowledges that breaking into other people's computers is bad, but that discovering and exploiting security mechanisms and breaking into computers is still an interesting activity that can be done ethically and legally. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the conte
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information or data, such as usernames, passwords andcredit card details, by disguising oneself as a trustworthy entity in anelectronic communication . Typically carried out by email spoofing ,  instant messaging ,  and text messaging, phishing often directs users to enter personal information at a fake website which matches the look and feel of the legitimate site. An example of a phishing email, disguised as an official email from a (fictional) bank. The sender is attempting to trick the recipient into revealing confidential information by "confirming" it at the phisher's website. Note the misspelling of the words received anddiscrepancy as recieved anddiscrepency , respectively. Although the URL of the bank'swebpage appears to be legitimate, the hyperlink points at the phisher's webpage.Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users. Users are lured by communications purporting to be from trusted parties such as social web sites , auction sites , banks, colleagues/executives, online payment processors or IT administrators. Attempts to deal with phishing incidents include legislation , user training, public awareness, and technical security measures (the latter being due to phishing attacks frequently exploiting weaknesses in current web security). 
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